Lecture notes and text-books on electron optics.


Introductory lecture notes have kindly been made available by Prof. George C King of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. They can be downloaded from:


These notes are intended only as an introduction to the subject, and no guarantee is given for their reliability or accuracy. They must not, in whole or in part, be incorporated in any other texts nor used for the purposes of teaching or instruction, without the prior permission in writing of Prof King.


The ‘standard’ book on electrostatic lenses, from the same group that wrote the early versions of the CPO programs, is:

Electrostatic lenses, by E Harting and F H Read, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1976). Copies of the text (non-data) pages of this book are available in the ‘document’ folder of the CPO package.


A selection of general textbooks on electron optics, in approximate order of detail and comprehensiveness:

Electrostatic Lens Systems, by D W O Heddle, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK, 2000.

Introduction to Electron and Ion Optics, by P Dahl, Academic Press, New York, 1973.

Basics of Electron Optics, by D A De Wolf, Wiley, New York, 1990.

Electron Optics, by B Paszkowski, Illife Books, London, 1968.

Optics of Charged Particles, by H Wollnik, Academic Press, New York, 1987.

Free Electron Physics, by P S Farago, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, UK, 1970.

Electron Optics, by O Klemperer and M E Barnett, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1971.

Electron Optics, by P Grivet, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1965.

Physics of Charged Particle Beams, by J D Lawson, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1988.

Electron and Ion Optics, by M Szilagyi, Plenum Press, New York, 1988.

Handbook of Charged Particle Optics, Ed by J Orloff, CRC Press, New York, 1997.

Principles of Electron Optics, by P. W. Hawkes, E. Kasper, Academic Press, New York and London, 1989.



Some papers and books that describe the Boundary Element Method (BEM):

Electrostatic cylinder lenses I: Two element lenses, by F H Read, A Adams and J R Soto-Montiel, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 4, 625-32 (1971). This describes the first application of the BEM to electrostatic lenses.

Electrostatic lenses, by E Harting and F H Read (Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1976) ISBN 0-444-41319-7. This contains a fuller description of the BEM (which at that time was called the charge density method and was later called the surface charge method, but is now called the BEM) to electrostatic lenses. Copies of the text (non-data) pages of this book are available in the ‘document’ folder of the CPO package.

The charge-density method of solving electrostatic problems with and without the inclusion of space-charge, by A Renau, F H Read and J N H Brunt, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 15, 347-54 (1982). A fuller description of the BEM.

Boundary Elements, an Introductory Course, 2nd ed, by C. A. Brebbia and J. Dominguez (Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton, UK, 1992) ISBN 1-85312-161-6 and 1-56252-087-3 and 0-07-007416-X.

Boundary Elements for Engineers, by J. Trevelyan (Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton, UK, 1994) ISBN 1-85312-279-3 and 1-56252-203-5.

Programming the Boundary Element Method, an Introduction for Engineers, by Gernot Beer (Wiley, 2001) ISBN 0-471-85722-X.

Boundary Element Methods for Elecrical Engineers, by D. Poljak and C. A. Brebbia (Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton, UK, expected Spring 2005, see www.witpress.com, www.witpressusa.com) ISBN 1-84564-033-0.


Papers on specialised topics:

Improved extrapolation technique in the Boundary Element Method to find the capacitances of the unit square and cube, by F H Read, J. Computational Physics 133, 1-5 (1997)

The charge-tube method for space-charge simulations, by F H Read, A Chalupka and N J Bowring, COMPEL (Int. J. for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering), 18, 548-555 (1999).

Extrapolating the number of segments to infinity in the Boundary Element Method, by F H Read, International Series on Advances in Boundary Elements, vol 8 (Boundary Elements XXII, Eds. C A Brebbia and H Power, WIT Press, Southampton, UK), pp 139-144 (2000).

Simulation of Thermionic Cathodes, by F. H. Read and N. J.Bowring, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A531, 407-415 (2004).



See also publications of the Manchester group.