Electrode voltages, relationship option.


See also the general note on voltages.


Defining relationships between voltages.

Any voltage can be defined to be linearly dependent on 3 other voltages.

This option is triggered by entering a voltage as 1.E11 and then using the space reserved for ‘comments’ to enter 3 integers (n1, n2, n3) and 3 real numbers (a1,a2,a3). The voltage is then set to:

a1*voltage(n1) + a2*voltage(n2) + a3*voltage(n3)


In xmpl2d42 and xmpl3d56 we have created two extra voltages and have defined:

V1 = V3 + 0.5*V4,

V2 = V3 - 0.5*V4,

V3 = 1.133333

V4 = 1.066667.


This has been achieved by entering the 4 voltages and their ‘comments’:

1.E11 3 4 4 1. 0.5 0. inner hemisphere

1.E11 3 4 4 1. -0.5 0. outer hemisphere

1.133333 V3

1.066667 V4


We refer to V1 and V2 as ‘dependent voltages’, and V3 and V4 as ‘source voltages’.



Important notes:

The dependent voltages must be given first, followed by the source voltages.

All voltages must be either dependent voltages or source voltages.

Only dependent voltages can be applied to electrodes, not source voltages.


This option is not available for time-dependent voltages and cannot be used with the zero total charge option.


Only the source voltages can be varied in automatic focus iterations.


For users who are editing or constructing an 'input data file' without the use of the data-builder -that is, pre-processor:

But Manual editing is certainly not recommended -it is a relic from the time when the databuilder was not available All users are strongly encouraged to use the databuilder, which always gives the correct formats and which has many options for which the formats are not described or easily deduced.


Enter the voltage numbers of 2 voltages. If the 2 numbers are the same then there is no voltage gradient and the voltage that has this repeated number is applied to the whole electrode.

If the 2 numbers are different then this indicates that there is a voltage gradient along the electrode. When the 2 voltage numbers are different the line must be followed by an extra line that contains the 2 values of z of the points of application of the 2 voltages (and these points need not be on the electrode itself).