Reflections of rays in planes of reflection symmetry in the presence of space-charge


In space-charge calculations the rays are automatically given the same reflection symmetries as the electrodes.

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So beware.

For example, if the rays go in the general z direction, starting at a non-zero value of z, they could usually not have z=0 as a plane of reflection symmetry, and so then the electrodes must not have this reflection plane.


Also in space-charge calculations the reflection symmetries of the voltages cannot be negative, because the space-charge cloud cannot have negative symmetry.


It is not possible to incorporate all the relevant safeguards into the program, so the user should carefully inspect the rays plots to check on the symmetries.


For information on data entry see general note on space-charge.


Return to general note on symmetries.