Section 2.8 of the User's Guide for CPO2D and CPO3D
Or proceed to section 2.9
Specifying the initial ray conditions.
The starting conditions of the rays can be specified in a wide variety of different ways, including beams, cathodes and simply specifying each individual ray.
The ray (that is, trajectory) initial conditions can be entered in any of the following ways:
(1) by specifying a series of individual rays
(2) by specifying a beam (that is, a bundle of rays)
(3) by specifying a set of lens or spectrometer coefficients that are to be calculated
(4) by calling for a repeat (during a space-charge iteration) of the previous set of rays, together with a multiplication factor for the currents
(5) by specifying the parameters of a thermionic cathode
(6) by specifying the parameters of a field emission or schottky emission cathode.
(8) by specifying the parameters for zero initial kinetic energy.
(9) by calling for a re-plot of the previously calculated rays.
It is also possible to by-pass the ray tracing process and re-use previously calculated rays.
It is also possible to combine sets of rays.
The colours of the rays can be chosen by the user.
In space-charge simulations each ray represents a model particle that moves in the total electric field as if it were a single electron or ion but carries the charge and current of many adjacent electrons or ions. The model particle has sometimes been labelled a super-electron or ion.
Other options that appear on the ‘sources of rays…’ screens:
See also advanced options in setting up rays.