Chapter 6 of User's Guide for CPO2D and CPO3D

The 'test', 'example' and 'default' data files

This chapter covers four sets of data files that are supplied as part of the CPO2D and CPO3D packages:

1. The 'benchmark test' files test2dn.dat and test3dn.dat, where n labels the particular files.

2. The 'example' files xmpl2dn.dat and xmpl3dn.dat.

3. The 'shape' files shap2dn.dat and shap3dn.dat.

4. The 'default' data files default2.dat and default3.dat.

5. The 'standard' data files cpo2d.dat and cpo3d.dat.

These files are intended as read-in files, and the program does not allow them to be edited or modified, but copies of all of them are supplied with the package. In the titles of the copies the letter 'd' is replaced by 'r', so that for example 'test2d01.dat' becomes 'test2r01.dat'.

Data files can also be created from ‘dxf’ files.

1. The 'benchmark test' files.

The 'benchmark test' files deal with simulations that have known analytical solutions, to demonstrate the speed, accuracy and capabilities of CPO2D and CPO3D. The footnotes of the test and example files contain detailed information (including key formulas) on a wide variety of simulations in charged particle optics.

The titles of the 'benchmark test' files are

CPO2D:

test2d01 Idealised hemispherical deflection analyzer (HDA)

test2d02 Idealised cylindrical deflection analyzer

test2d03 Parabolic motion in uniform field (cylindrical symmetry)

test2d04 Parabolic motion in uniform field (planar symmetry)

test2d05 Relativistic motion in a uniform electric field

test2d06 Capacitance of a sphere

test2d07 Capacitance of coaxial cylinders

test2d08 Time-dependent potentials

test2d09 Coefficients of hemispherical deflection analyser (HDA)

test2d10 Space-charge limited current of a spherical diode (concave cathode)

test2d11 Space-charge limited current of a spherical diode (small convex cathode)

test2d12 Planar Pierce gun

test2d13 Spherical cold field emission diode

test2d14 Cylindrical diode, small inner cathode

test2d15 Field at a circular hole in an infinite sheet

test2d16 Ideal cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA)

test2d17 Ideal parallel plate analyzer

test2d18 Field penetration through a flat mesh of flat strips

test2d19 Field at tip of a cone

test2d20 Cylindrical Pierce gun

test2d21 Field at centre of a double cylinder lens

test2d22 Non-meridional rays, cylindrical symmetry

test2d23 Non-xz-plane rays, planar symmetry

test2d24 Motion in a user-supplied oscillating electric field

test2d25 The ‘743’ test

test2d26 Axial potentials of 2-tube lens

test2d27 Parabolic mirror, electrodes defined by users equations

test2d28 Helical motion in a uniform magnetic field

test2d29 Magnetic Glaser lens

CPO3D:

test3d01 Idealised hemispherical deflection analyzer (HDA)

test3d02 Idealised cylindrical deflection analyzer

test3d03 Parabolic motion in uniform field

test3d04 Relativistic cyclotron motion

test3d05 Relativistic motion in a uniform electric field

test3d06 Capacitance of a cube

test3d07 Capacitance of a sphere

test3d08 Time-dependent oscillating potentials

test3d09 Coefficients of hemispherical deflection analyser (HDA)

test3d10 Space-charge limited current of a spherical diode (concave cathode)

test3d11 Space-charge limited current of a spherical diode (convex cathode)

test3d12 Spherical cold field emission diode

test3d13 Field at a circular hole in an infinite sheet

test3d14 Ideal cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA)

test3d15 Capacitance of circular disc

test3d16 Motion in a user-supplied oscillating electric field

test3d17 Capacitance of a unit square

test3d18 Capacitance of circular disc

test3d19 Capacitance of a unit triangle, and summary of capacitance tests

test3d20 Ideal quadrupole ion trap, superseded by test3d34

test3d21, Potentials of point charges, superseeded, removed

test3d22 Spherical capacitor with dielectric in gap

test3d23 Parallel plate capacitor with dielectric in gap

test3d24 Field in a cavity inside a dielectric

test3d25 Field inside a dielectric sphere

test3d26 Field inside a dielectric cylinder

test3d27 Capacitance of coaxial cylinders with dielectric

test3d28 Neumann boundary conditions in a spherical system

test3d29 Mirror image force on a charged toner particle;toner particle

test3d30 Including mirror image force in ray tracing

test3d31 Space-charge repulsion of 2 particles in a beam, using pulsed beam option

test3d32 Shielding by a spherical dielectric shell

test3d33 Parabolis mirror, defined by users equations

test3d34 Ideal quadrupole ion trap, defined by users equations, replaces test3d20

test3d35 Field at tip of a cone

2. The 'example' data files.

The 'example' data files represent simulations that are of general interest but that do not have known analytical solutions. The footnotes of the files contain detailed information (including key formulas) on a wide variety of simulations in charged particle optics. .

The titles of the 'example' files are

CPO2D:

xmpl2d01 A double cylinder lens

xmpl2d02 A double aperture lens

xmpl2d03 A double rectangular tube lens

xmpl2d04 A double rectangular tube lens

xmpl2d05 A 'beam' of rays focussed by a double-cylinder lens.

xmpl2d06 An example of iterative subdivision, for a double-cylinder lens.

xmpl2d07 Automatic iteration to focus a beam by a three-cylinder lens.

xmpl2d08 Lens coefficients of double-cylinder lens.

xmpl2d09 Space-charge limited planar diode, cylindrical symmetry.

xmpl2d10 Space-charge limited diode in planar symmetry (that is, flat, parallel cathode and anode, infinite in one direction).

xmpl2d11 Simulation of the space-charge repulsion of an isolated beam that initially converges to a point, using the 'ray space-charge tube' method.

xmpl2d12 Simulation of the space-charge repulsion of a mixed beam of electrons and carbon ions.

xmpl2d13 A relativistic double-cylinder lens.

xmpl2d14 A double-cylinder lens with a linear voltage bridge across the gap.

xmpl2d15 Automatic iterative variation of the grid voltage of a simple thermionic electron gun.

xmpl2d16 Multiple focussing of a Hemispherical Deflection Analyzer.

xmpl2d17 A mirror that has negative spherical and chromatic aberrations.

xmpl2d18 Practical cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA).

xmpl2d19 Field penetration through a cylindrical mesh of round wires.

xmpl2d20 Field penetration through a flat mesh of round wires.

xmpl2d21 Parallel wire deflector, planar symmetry.

xmpl2d22 Parallel edge deflector, planar symmetry.

xmpl2d23 Conventional plate deflector, planar symmetry.

xmpl2d25 Creation of secondaries 1

xmpl2d26 Creation of secondaries 2

xmpl2d28 Carbon nano-tube, for field emission source.

xmpl2d29 Enhancement factor for a cone.

xmpl2d30 Enhancement factor for a ‘hemisphere on post’.

xmpl2d31 Conical lens with apertures transverse to axis of lens.

xmpl2d32 Conical lens with apertures transverse to axis of cones.

xmpl2d33 PCMA (Parallel CMA) analyzer, axis-to-cylinder mode.

xmpl2d34 PCMA (Parallel CMA) analyzer, axis-to-axis mode.

xmpl2d35 PCMA (Parallel CMA) analyzer, axis-to-disc mode.

xmpl2d36 Triple cylinder einzel lens.

xmpl2d37 Scattering option, production of secondary electrons.

xmpl2d38 Scattering option, absorption and scattering by background gas.

xmpl2d39 Scattering option, scattering at a grid.

xmpl2d40 Scattering option, simulation of a thin lens.

xmpl2d41 Photocathode.

xmpl2d42 Defining relationships between voltages.

xmpl2d43 X-ray tube with thermal energies.

xmpl2d44 Converting an electric field to a magnetic field.

xmpl2d45 Rectangular waveform for oscillating voltages.

xmpl2d46 Space-charge expansion of an electron beam.

xmpl2d47 Accelerator tube.

xmpl2d48 Sputter ion source.

xmpl2d49 Outputting potential and field data for later re-use.

xmpl2d50: Example of using imported potentials and fields.

xmpl2d51: Non-meridional beam.

xmpl2d52: Repeated non-meridional space-charge iterations.

xmpl2d53: Cathode with thermal energies.

xmpl2d54: Space-charge repulsion in a pulsed beam.

xmpl2d55: Magnetic bottle.

xmpl2d56: Aperture lens with curved surfaces.

xmpl2d57: Tube lens with curved surfaces.

xmpl2d58: Calbick lens.

xmpl2d59: Single atom ion source.

xmpl2d60: Source of positive ions of fixed energy.

xmpl2d61: Extended Schottky emission, spherical cathode.

CPO3D:

xmpl3d01 A practical hemispherical deflection analyzer.

xmpl3d02 A practical cylindrical deflection analyzer, 127 degrees.

xmpl3d03 Orbit of a proton outside a charged sphere.

xmpl3d04 A demonstration of iterative subdivision.

xmpl3d05 Quadrupole filter with oscillating field, superceded by xmpl3d95.

xmpl3d06 Automatic iteration to optimise the focus of a 4-cylinder lens.

xmpl3d07 Space-charge repulsion of an isolated beam that initially converges to a point.

xmpl3d08 Space-charge repulsion in a mixed beam of electrons and positively charged carbon ions.

xmpl3d09 Space-charge limitation of current in a strong magnetic field.

xmpl3d10 Space-charge limited planar diode.

xmpl3d11 Space-charge limited planar diode, with thermal energies.

xmpl3d12 Automatic optimisation of an electron gun with a hairpin cathode.

xmpl3d13 Cathode ray tube.

xmpl3d14 Miniature lens for microelectronic switching.

xmpl3d15 Hairpin cathode with potential drop and current.

xmpl3d16 Extended Schottky emission, spherical cathode.

xmpl3d17 Magnetic angle changing technique

xmpl3d18 Multiple focussing of hemispherical deflection analyzer.

xmpl3d19 Split-lens deflector.

xmpl3d20 Magnetic bottle.

xmpl3d21 Space-charged limited cylindrical diode with thermal energies.

xmpl3d22 Practical cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA).

xmpl3d23 Penetration of field and potential through a mesh.

xmpl3d24 CRT electron gun, cylindrical symmetry.

xmpl3d25 CRT electron gun, rectangular grid.

xmpl3d26 Aberrations due to a localised potential defect on an aperture.

xmpl3d27 Simplest unbalanced deflector.

xmpl3d28 Pierce gun, potassium 39 ions, with thermal energies.

xmpl3d29 Penetration of field and potential through a mesh of flat strips.

xmpl3d30 Magnetic deflector.

xmpl3d31 Penetration of potential through a circular hole in a flat sheet.

xmpl3d32 Double-cylinder lens, parameters and coefficients.

xmpl3d33 2-fold deflector, flared plates.

xmpl3d34 2-fold deflector, split-cylinder plates.

xmpl3d35 2-fold deflector, curved edge-on plates.

xmpl3d36 4-fold deflector, flat plates.

xmpl3d37 4-fold deflector, flared plates.

xmpl3d38 4-fold deflector, angled plates.

xmpl3d39 4-fold deflector, split-cylinder plates.

xmpl3d40 4-fold deflector, staggered split-cylinder plates.

xmpl3d41 4-fold deflector, split-disc edge-on plates.

xmpl3d42 4-fold deflector, staggered curved edge-on plates.

xmpl3d43 8-fold deflector, split-cylinder plates.

xmpl3d44 8-fold deflector, split-disc plates.

xmpl3d45 Photocathode, with photoelectrons of fixed energy and lambertian distribution of directions.

xmpl3d46 Creation of secondary rays, Maxwell and Poisson distributions.

xmpl3d47 Simple magnetic lens.

xmpl3d48 Photomultiplier.

xmpl3d49 Reflected secondaries

xmpl3d50: user-supplied scattering option, scattering at a grid.

xmpl3d51 User-supplied scattering option, simulation of a thin lens.

xmpl3d52 Enhancement factor for a nano-cone.

xmpl3d53 Enhancement factor for a cone in an array of nano-cones.

xmpl3d54 An example of a field emission flat screen display system.

xmpl3d55 Use of a rectangular beam, for space-charge spreading.

xmpl3d56 Defining relationships between voltages.

xmpl3d57 Archards method of correcting chromatic aberration.

xmpl3d58 User-supplied scattering option, production of secondary electrons

xmpl3d59 User-supplied scattering option, absorption and scattering by background gas

xmpl3d60 Stochastic scattering option, Boersch energy spreading

xmpl3d61 Option for user-supplied near-axis electric field

xmpl3d62 Enhancement factor for a nanotube, 'hemisphere on post'

xmpl3d63 Enhancement factor for 2 nearby nanotubes

xmpl3d64 Enhancement factor for a square array of nanotubes

xmpl3d65 Enhancement factor for a 'spoilt' array of nanotubes

xmpl3d66 Enhancement factor for a random array of nanotubes

xmpl3d67 Enhancement factor for a linear array of nanotubes

xmpl3d68 Spatial stochastic scattering

xmpl3d69 Rectangular waveform for oscillating voltages

xmpl3d70 Stark barrel

xmpl3d71 Ion trap

xmpl3d72 Liquid metal ion source

xmpl3d73 Electron impact ion source

xmpl3d74 Space-charge spreading in an electron beam

xmpl3d75 Using CPO to solve for a magnetic field

xmpl3d76 Simple achromatic quadrupole lens

xmpl3d77 Accelerator tube

xmpl3d78: Sputter ion source

xmpl3d79: Enhancement factor for a carbon sheet with flat edges

xmpl3d80: Enhancement factor for a carbon sheet with rounded edges

xmpl3d81: Multichannel electron multiplier

xmpl3d82: Multichannel electron multiplier, tilted channels

xmpl3d83: Outputting potential and field data for later re-use

xmpl3d84: Example of using imported potentials and fields

xmpl3d85: 7 charged toner particles

xmpl3d86: Space charge repulsion in a pulsed beam

xmpl3d87: Dielectric simulation of a magnetic yoke

xmpl3d88: Outputting potential and field information at user-defined points

xmpl3d89: Pulsed photocathode

xmpl3d90: Field emission semi-conductor cathode with dielectrics

xmpl3d91: Nearly helical motion in a strong magnetic field

xmpl3d92: Nearly helical motion in a strong magnetic field, second example, electrostatic bottle

xmpl3d93: Hexapole aberration corrector

xmpl3d94 Secondary rays at a dielectric interface

xmpl3d95 Quadrupole filter , defined by users equations, replaces xmpl3d05

xmpl3d96 Iteration to optimise a focus by maximising current

3. The 'shape' data files.

The 'shape' files give examples of the shapes that are possible with CPO3D.

The titles of the 'shape' files are:

CPO2D:

shap2d01 A sphere stretched to make an ellipsoid, using stretching option.

shap2d02 A toroidal energy analyzer.

shap2d03 A hyperbolic surface, supersed by shap2d05.

shap2d04 A parabola, using option for users equations.

shap2d05 A hyperbolic surface created by users equations, replaces shap2d03.

shap2d06 General conic section.

shap2d07 General conic section, alternative form.

CPO3D:

shap3d01 An ellipsoid created by stretching a sphere.

shap3d02 A cylinder of elliptical cross section, created by stretching transversely.

shap3d03 An elliptical hole in an elliptical disc.

shap3d04 A cylinder of elliptical cross section, created by segments of elliptical cross section.

shap3d05 A cone.

shap3d06 An 'evenly divided' disc.

shap3d07 A split disc.

shap3d08 A clipped (truncated) hemispherical deflection analyzer.

shap3d09 A split cylinder deflector.

shap3d10 A thick flat plate with a rectangular hole in it, superseded by shap3d45, with users equations.

shap3d11 A cylinder truncated at an angle of 45 degrees to its axis, by using the 'clipping' option, superseded by shap3d38, with users equations.

shap3d12 A cylinder truncated at an angle of 45 degrees to its axis, by using 'cylindrical triangular' segments, superseded by shap3d38, with users equations.

shap3d13 3 circular holes symmetrically positioned in a disc.

shap3d14 A circular hole at the centre of a disc, surrounded by 6 others.

shap3d15 A cylindrical deflection analyzer, using 'cre'.

shap3d16 A toroidal surface, superseded by shap3d33.

shap3d17 Program used when final electron energies are much higher than initial energies.

shap3d18 A torus, and the program for generating it, superseded by shap3d34.

shap3d19 A grid of 289 holes.

shap3d20 A grid of 9 holes.

shap3d21 A rectangular plate with a rectangular slot, superseded by shap3d45, with users equations.

shap3d22 A rectangular plate with a circular hole, 1st method, superseded by shap3d40, with users equations.

shap3d23 A rectangular plate with a circular hole, 2nd method, superseded by shap3d40, with users equations.

shap3d24 A rectangular slot in a spherical cap.

shap3d26 A cylinder with an end cut at an angle to the axis, superseded by shap3d38, with users equations.

shap3d27 Concentration of segments at a corner of a rectangle.

shap3d28 All types of triangles.

shap3d29 Illustration of the hexapole option.

shap3d30 Illustration of the option to decrease the aspect ratios of the segments.

shap3d31 A cone cut at an angle.

shap3d32 A circular magnetic field inside a torus, superseded by shap3d35, with users equations.

shap3d33 A toroidal surface, with users equations, replaces shap3d16.

shap3d34 A complete torus, with users equations, replaces shap3d18.

shap3d35 A magnetic field inside a torus, with users equations, replaces shap3d32.

shap3d36 Elliptical electrode, by users equations.

shap3d37 Elliptical hole in circular electrode, by users equations.

shap3d38 Cylinder cut at an angle, by users equations, replaces shap11,12,26,31.

shap3d39 Square hole in round disc, by users equations.

shap3d40 Round hole in a square disc, by users equations, replaces shap21,22.

shap3d41 A helical coil, by users equations.

shap3d42 A small hole in a circular disc, by users equations.

shap3d43 Sectors of a cone, by users equations.

shap3d44 Corrugated cylinder, by users equations.

shap3d45 Rectangular slot in rectangular plate, by users equations, replaces shap10.21.

shap3d46 Cylinder with parallel angled ends, by users equations.

shap3d47 Square hole in a sphere, by users equations.

shap3d48 Cone, segments concentrated at tip, by users equations.

shap3d49 5 holes in circular disc, by users equations.

shap3d50 5 holes in disc, details, by users equations.

shap3d51 5 holes in square plate, by users equations.

shap3d52 Rectangular hole in rectangular plate, by users equations.

shap3d53 Rectangular hole in a sphere, by users equations.

4. The 'default' data files default2.dat and default.dat.

These contain typical default parameters for the parameters, and so are suitable as templates for a new simulation. For further information, see default2.dat or default3.dat

5. The 'standard' data files cpo2d.dat and cpo3d.dat.

These files used to be important when the data-builder did not exist, because they included complete sets of notes (which are now contained in the Help menu, usually in an improved form, together with much other information). The files no longer includes these notes, but they are retained because cpo3d.dat contains examples of some of the more specialised types of electrode and both cpo2d.dat and cpo3d.dat contain some useful analysis programs as appendices (which can also be found in Help).